Archaeologists consider a culture new when its relics are found to have undergone a decisive change in character, but they cannot definitely determine whether the reason for the change was an entirely new population, an alien conquest, or simply a peaceful cultural interchange. The Comb-Ceramic people inherited their stone implements from an older, pre-Ceramic culture, which, at least, signifies that an unbroken contact with the earlier inhabitants of the country had existed.
By one estimate, almost a third of all developing country forests are now managed by local communities, well over twice the share currently found in protected areas 14. Granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to forests is a leading mechanism being used to implement decentralization, particularly in Latin America 56.
For example, by the end ofLatin American and Caribbean countries had awarded local communities formal title to at least million ha of forest 7. Even as forest tenure reform has gained momentum, however, forest clearing and degradation in developing countries have persisted 89.
Given these two concurrent trends, it is important to understand the effect of community titling on forest cover change in developing countries. Previous theoretical and empirical research suggests that it can either stem or spur forest damage. Research focusing specifically on tropical forests has shown that weak property rights can spur forest damage in a variety of ways: In principle, granting title to indigenous communities could mitigate each of these problems.
Previous research also suggests that titling can increase forest cover change, however. Giving title to entire communities instead of individual households can recreate common-pool resource problems on a local level, which the communities may or may not be willing and able to address 24 Hence, the net effect on forest clearing and degradation of granting title to communities is an empirical matter.
However, as discussed in the next section, we know little about it. Although numerous studies have examined the effect of preexisting tenure type on forest cover change, rigorous studies of the effect of titling initiatives that change the tenure status of indigenous communities are rare. We analyze the effect of granting title to indigenous communities on forest cover change in the Peruvian Amazon.
Titling there has been extensive: More than 1, indigenous communities accounting for more than 11 million ha received title between and We focus on the effect of titling from to on forest cover change from to Supporting Information provides additional background on our study area, including forest cover change and governance, indigenous communities, and the titling process.
To identify the effect of titling on forest cover change, we use high-resolution remotely sensed data on both forest clearing and forest disturbance, along with statistical techniques that aim to control for confounding factors Two recent meta-analyses conclude that, in general, preexisting tenure security is associated with lower rates of forest cover change regardless of the form of tenure 36 Although these studies are valuable, they do not directly address the policy questions with which we are concerned: Does changing land tenure affect forest cover?
Studies of policies and programs that have changed land tenure are likely to provide more informative answers to those questions. As one of the meta-analyses cited above makes clear, preexisting tenure type is often correlated with unobservable confounding factors because the historical processes that assign tenure types typically are not random For example, in many Latin American countries, over hundreds of years, powerful private landowners acquired the forestlands that would be most productive when converted to agriculture e.
In such countries, tenure type is strongly correlated with confounding factors. Unfortunately, studies of the effect of preexisting tenure on forest cover generally do not try to control for these factors.
The meta-analysis noted above examined peer-reviewed publications and found only 36 studies that attempted to control for confounding factors and only two studies other than of protected areas that used quasi-experimental methods for that purpose Controlling for confounding factors is more straightforward when tenure has changed relatively recently as a result of a titling initiative.
In such cases, it is easier to observe, and design an empirical strategy to control for, the treatment assignment process.
To our knowledge, only two published studies use quasi-experimental methods to evaluate the effects of changes in land tenure on forest cover: However, neither focuses on the effects of a national-level campaign aimed at indigenous communities.
They find no evidence that titling reduced forest loss in the 5 y after title was awarded. Liscow 29 exploits a natural experiment, the massive land reform associated with the Sandinista revolution, to identify the effects of changes in tenure security on forest cover in Nicaragua. Using landholder-level cross-sectional data, along with instrumental variables models, he finds that all other things being equal, properties with relatively secure title, including properties held by individuals, cooperatives, and indigenous communities, had less forest cover per hectare than properties without such title.
He hypothesizes that this correlation reflects the effect of tenure security on credit access, agricultural productivity, and, ultimately, the return to deforestation.Territoriality and personal space are hugely important to nonverbal communication.
People use various methods to protect and stop invasions of personal space, as well as using space to achieve certain communicative goals. Territoriality is the concept of behavior that is used to identify a. History. According to their tradition, and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, many Ojibwe came from the eastern areas of North America, which they called Turtle Island, and from along the east coast.
Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural.
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Encroachment of biophysical space. Territorial encroachment. The following cases focus primarily on . How Evolution Made the Monkey Face The complexity, or lack thereof, on a simian's face reveals a great deal about its society.