An Exemplification of Theatre Management. Proctor's th Street Theatre building In New York City, was visited by a lire Friday evening, May 6, while an audience of nearly two thousand people sat enjoying the bill that was being put on.
Cultural Refinement in Chinese and Mughal Art The Song dynasty in China and the Mughal period in India occurred almost years apart, but they triggered a cultural renaissance that defined the artistic landscape of both countries.
This paper will examine the philosophical narrative in the art of both cultures to highlight the similarities and differences between the Song dynasty in China and Mughal reign in India.
The Song dynasty was one of the most dynamic eras of Chinese history. Occurring between the tenth and late thirteenth century, it was a time of economic prosperity.
It gave birth to a culture of increasing refinement and scholarship with a focus on history, literature and a revival of Confucianism, which became known as Neo-Confucianism. The Song dynasty was also a time of technological advancement and the development of urban centers.
From iron ore extraction to infrastructure development, economic prosperity resulted in increased patronage for artists, performers and thinkers, particularly in the court and the cities.
In terms of art, the Song dynasty witnessed the rise of landscape painting as an independent genre inspired the teachings of Neo-Confucianism, that of an all-embracing explanation of the universe and becoming one with nature. Most landscape artists were urban court painters, professionals, scholars and officials their audience too comprised of the same milieu.
Song landscape artists made close studies of nature and used their paintings as a way to warn against the negative effects of industrial development on the environment.
It is in this context that we find one of the great masters of Song landscape in the eleventh century, Fan Kuan. Not much is known about Fan Kuans early life. He is believed to have modeled his early works after the artist Li Cheng. He devoted his art to the veneration of nature and spent the latter half of his life as a recluse in the mountains of Northern China that he had immortalized in his paintings.
A comment attributed to Fan Kuan sheds light on his disposition. He is believed to have said, My predecessors always found their methods in natural phenomena. So for me to take people as my teachers cannot compare with learning from natural phenomena.
Better still would it be to learn from my heart-mind. It is an almost monochromatic work in ink and color on silk. The composition unfolds vertically in three stages. In the extreme foreground, we see a low-lying group of rocks at the bottom. Just above the rocks in the middle ground, travelers are crossing the mountain pass through the copse of trees.
We also see some variation in the form of a waterfall and medium size rock formations as well as the rooftop of a temple rising above the trees.
In the background, rising out of the mist are the massive mountains that appear to overshadow the entire scene. The painting forces the eye to move from bottom to top, taking in the scenes as separate narratives, but with the sense of a shared destination. The miniscule figures of the travelers in the middle, the dense foliage of the trees and texture patterns of the rocky surfaces are painstakingly detailed.
The mountains are overwhelming in their beauty, terrifying in their massiveness, and unyielding in their purpose as the singular force of power.
This landscape is not a simple depiction of nature rather it is a sophisticated homage to the dominance of nature over man, evoking a spiritual connection with the universe. According to Thorp and Vinograd, the hierarchy in the painting provides a systematic account of the connections between things that may be related to contemporary thinkers who sought common underlying principles in moral and physical realms.
The Mughals ruled India from late fifteenth to mid-nineteenth century. The Mughal emperors were the last in a line of Persian rulers to invade India and placed their mark on the art and architecture of the Indian Sub-continent.
Fan Kuan, Travelers by Streams and Mountains, hanging scroll, ink on silk, c. , x cm. (National Palace Museum, Taibei) Daoist mountain man, hermit, rustic, wine-lover—Fan Kuan has the reputation of having been truly unconventional. Travelers among Mountains and Streams, a large hanging scroll, is Fan Kuan's best known work and a seminal painting of the Northern Song school. It establishes an ideal in monumental landscape painting to which later painters were to return time and again for inspiration. To the right of the mule train, among the leaves, is the signature of Fan Kuan, a final touch by an artist to epitomize the insignificance of humans (including himself) compared to Nature. The signature was discovered by Li Lincan (李霖燦), a scholar at the National Palace Museum in Taipei, on August 5,
The Mughal dynasty is exemplified by its aesthetically minded rulers who were poets and romantic by nature. Under their rule, the style of art permeated from great cities to the tiniest jade pins used for their turbans. Their Islamic beliefs mean that nature was the underlying principle in their art each emperor found expression through the artists and craftsmen that they patronized.
The Mughal style highlights the remote, the unknown, the fantastic and the unattainable. The third Mughal emperor, Akbar, ruled from to and succeeded in extending control over most of Northern India. Akbar was obsessed with the Utopian idea of Muslims and Hindus living in familial accord and implemented many reforms to create a harmonious social landscape for both cultures.
He even married a Hindu Rajput princess in a dynastic marriage to gain the support of the powerful Rajputan warriors in his quest for unification of India. His time is considered the golden age of the Mughal Empire.
Akbars court was a cosmopolitan one with representatives from different countries and religions present alongside poets, philosophers, musicians, artists and merchants.
Akbar was an important patron of the arts his legacy continues to this day because of his support of artists provided a visual narrative of his time.
As a child, Akbar had worked with Persian artists and learnt the delicacies of linear graces and harmonious restraint. However, due to the dynamic and often turbulent nature of his rule, the art from Akbars court reflects a more energetic narrative.
Hamza-nama is an excellent example of the style of art prevalent in Akbars court. It is the largest and most extraordinary Mughal manuscript of all time and illustrates the adventures of Amir Hamza, an uncle of the Prophet Muhammad.Unit VI: Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams Caption Narration 1 Travelers among Mountains and Streams, by Fan feelthefish.comrn Song dynasty, early 11th century.
Hanging scroll with ink and colors on silk, height 6'9 1/2" ( m). Fan Kuan, Travelers by Streams and Mountains, ink on silk hanging scroll, c. , x cm. (National Palace Museum, Taibei) Daoist mountain man, hermit, rustic, wine-lover—Fan Kuan has the reputation of having been truly unconventional.
TRAVELLERS AMONG MOUNTAINS AND STREAMS Name Art Pre-History to December 1st Name Art November 16, While very little is known about one of China’s most accomplished artists, Fan. Home» Chinese Painting» Famous Chinese Painters» Fan Kuan» Fan Kuan: Travelers among Mountains and Streams. Travelers among Mountains and Streams (谿山行旅圖) Fan Kuan (active 10th–early 11th century), Song Dynasty (–) Hanging scroll, ink and light color on silk, x cm, National Palace Museum, Taipei.
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Create. Log in Sign up. Log in Sign up. 38 terms. Travelers among Mountains and Streams. Fan Kuan. c. C.E. Ink and colors on silk. (nature > . Southern Song Dynasty, Fan Kuan ''Travelers Among Mountains and Streams'' Fan Kuan (10th century) was a native of Hua-yuan (modern Yao-hsien) in Shensi province.