They do this by gaining a level of awareness above the subject matter: Metacognitive practices help students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses as learners, writers, readers, test-takers, group members, etc.
For example, a group of Orange County homemakers did very well at making supermarket best-buy calculations despite doing poorly on equivalent school-like paper-and-pencil mathematics problems Lave, Similarly, some Brazilian street children could perform mathematics when making sales in the street but were unable to answer similar problems presented in a school context Carraher, ; Carraher et al, How tightly learning is tied to contexts depends on how the knowledge is acquired Eich, Research has indicated that transfer across contexts is especially difficult when a subject is taught only in a single context rather than in multiple contexts Bjork and Richardson-Klavhen, One frequently used teaching technique is to get learners to elaborate on the examples used during learning in order to facilitate retrieval at a later time.
The practice, however, has the potential of actually making it more difficult to retrieve the lesson material in other contexts, because knowledge tends to be especially context-bound when learners elaborate the new material with details of the context in which the material is learned Eich, When a subject is taught in multiple contexts, however, and includes examples that demonstrate wide application of what is being taught, people are more likely to abstract the relevant features of concepts and to develop a flexible representation of knowledge Gick and Holyoak, The problem of overly contextualized knowledge has been studied in instructional programs that use case-based and problem-based learning.
In these programs, information is presented in a context of attempting to solve complex, realistic problems e.
For example, fifth- and sixth-grade students may learn mathematical concepts of distance-rate-time in the context of solving a complex case involving planning for a boat trip.
The findings indicate that if students learn only in this context, they often fail to transfer flexibly to new situations Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, The issue is how to promote wide transfer of the learning. One way to deal with lack of flexibility is to ask learners to solve a specific case and then provide them with an additional, similar case; the goal is to help them abstract general principles that lead to more flexible transfer Gick and Holyoak, ; see Box 3.
They might be asked: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: The National Academies Press. A third way is to generalize the case so that learners are asked to create a solution that applies not simply to a single problem, but to a whole class of related problems.
For example, instead of planning a single boat trip, students might run a trip planning company that has to advise people on travel times for different regions of the country.
Under these conditions, transfer to novel problems is enhanced e. Problem Representations Transfer is also enhanced by instruction that helps students represent problems at higher levels of abstraction.
Helping students represent their solution strategies at a more general level can help them increase the probability of positive transfer and decrease the degree to which a previous solution strategy is used inappropriately negative transfer.
Advantages of abstract problem representations have been studied in the context of algebra word problems involving mixtures. Some students were trained with pictures of the mixtures and other students were trained with abstract tabular representations that highlighted the underlying mathematical relationships Singley and Anderson, Students who were trained on specific task components without being provided with the principles underlying the problems could do the specific tasks well, but they could not apply their learning to new problems.
By contrast, the students who received abstract training showed transfer to new problems that involved analogous mathematical relations.
Research has also shown that developing a suite of representations enables learners to think flexibly about complex domains Spiro et al.Metacognition is an integral part of this virtuous learning cycle, and one that is amenable to further improvement through instruction. Charles Fadel is founder of the Center for Curriculum Redesign, Bernie Trilling is founder of 21st Century Learning Advisors and Maya Bialik is researcher at CCR.
Direct Instruction of Metacognition Benefits Adolescent Science Learning, Transfer, and Motivation: An In Vivo Study skills results in changes to student metacognition, motivation, learning, and future learning in the learning, transfer, and motivational outcomes together in a single study.
Metacognition and Transfer of Learning Words Aug 28th, 16 Pages Suppose that a student learns a mathematical procedure such as how to find the area of a parallelogram.
Metacognition: Designing For Transfer Judy Adkins University of Saskatchewan Abstract Successful learners cultivate a repertoire of metacognitive strategies that they apply when and as required by different learning circumstances.
Success hinges on the appropriate transfer of relevant strategies. Metacognitive strategy design. Metacognition is the skill of “thinking about thinking.” To foster this skill in students, incorporate assignments that force students to reflect on their own processes and cognition.
Synthesizing what they have learned and generating new ideas from existing knowledge helps transfer.
Since transfer between tasks is a function of the similarity by transfer tasks and learning experiences, an important strategy for enhancing transfer from schools to other settings may be to better understand the nonschool environments in which students must function.