Essay on shortage of water in karachi

In the first few months the British suffered many reverses.

Essay on shortage of water in karachi

Djakarta —Jakarta —present. Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta Devanagari: It was named after troops of Fatahillah successfully defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in In the colonial era, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten Queen of the Orientinitially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canalsmansions and ordered city layout.

Menteng and the area around Merdeka Squarewith their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. The Tugu inscription probably written around AD discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, KojaNorth Jakartamentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.

From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chiwritten circaChou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java Sunda.

The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malaccaarrived inwhile looking for a route for spices. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, [33] and became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanatewhich became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.

Inthe English East India Company 's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancasterarrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post.

This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, his soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. His army and the English, however, were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen.

The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced them to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in they renamed the city Batavia.

Commercial opportunities in the city attracted native and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations.

Following a revolt, 5, Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls. Among the commodities traded, fabrics, especially imported cotton, batik and clothing worn by Arab communities.

The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed inthe housing park of Menteng was started in [38] and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.

After the war, the Dutch name Batavia was internationally recognized until full Indonesian independence was achieved on 27 December and Jakarta was officially proclaimed the national capital of Indonesia.

Monas which stands in the centre of Merdeka squarecommemorates the Indonesian struggle for independence. Indonesian nationalists declared independence on 17 August [42] and the government of Jakarta City was changed into the Jakarta National Administration in the following month.

Inonce independence was secured, Jakarta again became the national capital. In OctoberJakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese, [45] marking the beginning of Suharto's New Order.

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A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped. This first government was led by a mayor until the end ofwhen the office was changed to that of a governor. The last mayor of Jakarta was Soediro, until he was replaced by Soemarno Sosroatmodjo as governor.

Based on Act No. He cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family [48] [49] —and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty.

After 32 years in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions reached a peak when 4 students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1, and destroyed or damaged 6, buildings, forcing Suharto to resign.the police department said the letters must have been sent by some miscreants to disrupt the blast probe, With Xiaomi now looking to venture into the laptop market, In spite of Rao?

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Essay on shortage of water in karachi

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Jakarta - Wikipedia