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As Frank van Laerhoven and Elinor Ostrom have stated; "Prior to the publication of Hardin's article on the tragedy of the commonstitles containing the words 'the commons', ' common pool resources ', or 'common property' were very rare in the academic literature.
The precision of this distinction is not always maintained. The use of "commons" for natural resources has its roots in European intellectual history, where it referred to shared agricultural fields, grazing lands and forests that were, over a period of several hundred years, enclosed, claimed as private property for private use.
In European political texts, the common wealth was the totality of the material riches of the world, such as the air, the water, the soil and the seed, all nature's bounty regarded as the inheritance of humanity as a whole, to be shared together.
In this context, one may go back further, to the Roman legal category res communis, applied to things common to all to be used and enjoyed by everyone, as opposed to res publica, applied to public property managed by the government.
European land use[ edit ] Main article: Common land Originally in medieval England the common was an integral part of the manorand was thus legally part of the estate in land owned by the lord of the manorbut over which certain classes of manorial tenants and others held certain rights.
By extension, the term "commons" has come to be applied to other resources which a community has rights or access to. The older texts use the word "common" to denote any such right, but more modern usage is to refer to particular rights of common, and to reserve the name "common" for the land over which the rights are exercised.
A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner. The UK was quite radical in doing away with and enclosing former commons, while southwestern Germany and the alpine countries as e.
Switzerland had the most advanced commons structures, and were more inclined to keep them. The Lower Rhine region took an intermediate position. Mongolian grasslands[ edit ] Based on a research project by the Environmental and Cultural Conservation in Inner Asia ECCIA from tosatellite images were used to compare the amount of land degradation due to livestock grazing in the regions of Mongolia, Russia, and China.
Lobster fishery of Maine[ edit ] Widespread success of the Maine lobster industry is often attributed to the willingness of Maine's lobstermen to uphold and support lobster conservation rules. These rules include harbor territories not recognized by the state, informal trap limits, and laws imposed by the state of Maine which are largely influenced by lobbying from lobster industry itself.
Community forests in Nepal[ edit ] In the late s, Nepal chose to decentralize government control over forests. Community forest programs work by giving local areas a financial stake in nearby woodlands, and thereby increasing the incentive to protect them from overuse.
Local institutions regulate harvesting and selling of timber and land, and must use any profit towards community development and preservation of the forests.
In twenty years, locals have noticed a visible increase in the number of trees. Community forestry may also contribute to community development in rural areas — for instance school construction, irrigation and drinking water channel construction, and road construction.
Community forestry has proven conducive to democratic practices at grass roots level. Acequia Acequia is a method of collective responsibility and management for irrigation systems in desert areas.
In New Mexico, a community-run organization known as Acequia Associations supervises water in terms of diversion, distribution, utilization, and recycling, in order to reinforce agricultural traditions and preserve water as a common resource for future generations.
These commons include literature, music, arts, design, film, video, television, radio, information, software and sites of heritage.feelthefish.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of feelthefish.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
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