It is not usually necessary to add lines to avoid widowed or orphaned headings meaning headings at the bottom of a page; though ask your professor to be sure if you are concerned about typesetting, such as with a dissertation. If your paper requires a section not addressed in this post or in the Publication Manual, then we recommend you use double spacing unless you have been instructed otherwise. For example, if your dissertation or thesis requires a table of contents including lists of tables and figuresthen we recommend that you generate it using an automatic table of contents function such as the one in Microsoft Word. The default spacing of the table of contents function is acceptable, as is changing the spacing of the table of contents to double if desired.
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Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title. All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
Basic Rules All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
Present the journal title in full.
Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. When referring to books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections. While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources.
Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.What is APA Style ®?.
Why is APA Style ® needed?.
Why is there a specific APA Style ®?. Can you help with my research for my psychology paper? Do you have any sample papers that I can view? APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books.
It is commonly used for citing sources within the field of social feelthefish.com is described in the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA), which is titled the Publication Manual of the American Psychological feelthefish.com guidelines were developed to aid reading.
APA Citation Examples. Based on APA Publication Manual, 6th Edition () and APA Style Guide to Electronic References (). Some General Rules.
In-Text Citations. APA Central is a digital library of quick APA guides and tutorials: Learn - view videos and tutorials, test your APA knowledge with quizzes, and view sample papers, references, tables, and figures. - Research - view tutorials, search APA dictionaries, develop research ideas, plan and track your research, and manage your references.
- Write - use templates to write papers (includes step-by. When to Add Extra Lines. In general, it is not necessary to add extra blank lines to an APA Style paper (an exception is around displayed equations, where you can add one or two blank lines before and/or after the equation to make it more visible to the reader).
APA Citation Style does not have a separate category for government publications. According to APA, government documents can be considered Books, Technical/Research Reports or Brochures.