Kaizen usually pronounced 'kyzan' or 'kyzen' in the western world is a Japanese word, commonly translated to mean 'continuous improvement'. Kaizen is a core principle of quality management generally, and specifically within the methods of Total Quality Management and 'Lean Manufacturing'. Originally developed and applied by Japanese industry and manufacturing in the s and 60s, Kaizen continues to be a successful philosophical and practical aspect of some of the best known Japanese corporations, and has for many years since been interpreted and adopted by 'western' organizations all over the world. Kaizen is a way of thinking, working and behaving, embedded in the philosophy and values of the organization.
Moreover, the reasons teachers are resistant to the idea of incorporating cooperative learning in their classrooms are typically founded in misconceptions. Most of the causes of failure when implementing cooperative learning are explicable and largely avoidable.
Technically, cooperative learning includes any form of instruction in which students are working together for a purpose. As we will examine in this chapter, the effects will be more powerful to the extent that certain ingredients are present.
The more any activity requires mutual interdependence, collective problem solving, and striving for a common goal, the better chance it will have at achieving the potential that cooperative learning offers Johnson, et al, ; Webb et al, There are many reasons to decide that cooperative learning is worth the effort.
Second, cooperative learning has the potential to meet more learning style needs more of the time than individualized direct instruction Shindler, Third, the interpersonal and collaboration skills that can be learned in a cooperative learning activity teach skills that are critical for later personal and professional success.
As we seek to create the most valuable, engaging and productive cooperative learning experiences for our students, consider how learning within a social context is different from learning independently. Recall our discussion of the social learning theory in the previous chapters.
This will be true for both instructional and managerial goals. If you are incorporating cooperative learning because you think your students need a break from the routine and you want to try something a bit more social, you may be missing the purpose and the potential of this teaching strategy.
Having students simply work in groups may be a nice change of pace and can be inherently more engaging for some students, but group work only scratches the surface of what is possible when students learn within a cooperative context.
While this chapter will address how to manage any form of group learning, it is suggested that one consider tapping as much of the potential as possible that cooperative learning has to offer. Recall situations in which you were asked to work with others.
Brainstorm a quick list of elements that were present in situations in which you felt motivated and ultimately successful. As we explore the practical aspects of effectively managing the cooperative learning activity throughout the chapter, you will undoubtedly develop a set of your own principles for an effective cooperative learning activity.
The goals of effective management will be inherently relative to what each reader wants to achieve. Teachers using both the 1-Style and 2-Style approaches reading the chapter will likely differ in their management and instructional goals related to effective classroom management.
Less Effective Cooperative Learning Activities More Effective Less Effective Activity has a psychological movement toward a goal and meets many basic needs in the process. Emphasis on the quality of the process.
Emphasis on the quality of the final product. Structure supports the cohesion and social development of group members.
Expectations are clear on both the implicit and explicit levels -- leading to focused effort, and low student anxiety. Expectations are untaught or left vague and result in confusion of frustration. Teacher interventions lead to the development of clarity and learning with the goal of tomorrow being better than today.
Teacher interventions are reactive and only act to solve problems in the short-term, if at all. Leadership is defined by either: Students are able to share their outcomes with others -- resulting in pride in their accomplishments and reinforcing the ethic that learning is a constructive process rather than merely a process of fact retention.
A few questions to ask yourself before you begin: What are my learning targets? Can the objectives that I am trying to reach be accomplished in a collaborative format?
What benefits will the cooperative aspect bring to the learning?An announcement goes out to the faculty that from now on the university will operate as a total quality management campus. All academic, business, and service functions will be assessed regularly, and quality teams will plan ways to improve them.
A total quality management must involve employees, customers and suppliers in order to be successful.
There are many aspects of successful total quality management (TQM) program implementation. First and foremost: it must involve every employee in your business--from the very top levels to the temporary, part-time staff.
Business analysis is a research discipline of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems.
Solutions often include a software-systems development component, but may also consist of process improvement, organizational change or strategic planning and policy development. Sole Proprietors and General Partnerships doing business in their full personal names only are not required to register.
Visit the Secretary of State website, Vendor Registration, for registration requirements, forms, instructions, and fees.
Contributing to business strategy based on considerations of human capital, business capabilities, readiness, and developing HR practices as strategic differentiators Emphasis: Knowledge of HR and the business, competition, the market, and business strategies.
Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to management methods used to enhance quality and productivity in business organizations. TQM is a comprehensive management approach that works horizontally.